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Morph's Architecture

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This overview offers a concise introduction to Morph’s rollup technology stack. For an in-depth understanding, please refer to the "How Morph Works" section of our documentation.

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The Modular Approach in Layer 2

Traditionally, the concept of modularity has been applied to Layer 1 blockchains, segmenting them into distinct layers. At Morph, we've extended this modular philosophy to Layer 2, building our platform around this innovative principle.

In a typical Layer 1 blockchain, the architecture consists of four major layers:

  • Consensus: The mechanism through which network agreement is achieved.
  • Execution: Where transaction processing and smart contract operations occur.
  • Settlement: The process of finalizing transactions.
  • Data Availability: Ensuring that necessary information is accessible for validation.

In the context of Layer 2, Morph reinterprets these layers with unique functionalities:

  • Consensus and Execution via Decentralized Sequencer Network: At Morph, these functions are integrated and handled by our decentralized sequencer network. Sequencers orchestrate, process, and achieve consensus on Layer 2 transactions, forming the primary interface for user interactions.

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  • Settlement with Optimistic zkEVM: Settlement in Morph refers to the finalization of Layer 2 transactions at the Ethereum level. It involves state verification, crucial for validating Layer 2 states. Morph employs the optimistic zkEVM for this purpose, a hybrid approach blending the best of optimistic rollups and zk-rollups. Layer 2 states will be eventually finalized by a significantly shorter challenge period or if gets challenged, the corresponding zk-proof.

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  • Data Availability through 'Rollup' Process: This entails transferring essential Layer 2 data to Ethereum. In Morph, this is achieved through the 'Rollup' process, where a batch submitter compiles blocks into batches and submits them as Layer 1 transactions on Ethereum.

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Independent yet Collaborative Functions

Each of these major functions operates independently, facilitating asynchronous tasks and switchable implementations:

  1. Sequencer Network: Executes Layer 2 transactions and updates local state.
  2. Rollup Module: Transforms Layer 2 blocks into batches for submission to Layer 1.
  3. State Verification: Utilizes Layer 1 security to verify Layer 2 states under the optimistic zkEVM rules. This modular architecture enhances flexibility, adaptability, and composability within the Morph ecosystem.

Diverse Roles Underpinning the Architecture

Morph’s architecture is further defined by five pivotal roles: Sequencers, Validators, Nodes, Provers, and Layer 1 (Ethereum). Each role carries specific responsibilities and utilizes distinct components to fulfill its function, contributing to the seamless operation of the network.

To delve deeper into the roles and mechanisms powering Morph, explore our detailed "How Morph Works" documentation.